Jeju's Symbol: Dolhareubang
- Jeju´s symbol : Dolhareubang
Dolhareubangs of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province have been well-known to the world as its symbol. It is great that Jeju Special Self-Governing Province is emerging as the centerpiece of Asia and the Pacific today. The more Jeju Special Self-Governing Province grows as global tourist resort, the better reputation of Dolhareubang permeates through home and abroad. 'Dolhareubang' means 'stone grandfather' Primarily, it was not called Dolhareubang. About the time of the restoration of independence, some Jeju people started to call it Dolhareubang in a joking way, and everyone came to use that name due to its clearly-expressed meaning. After the Jeju Cultural Properties Committee designated Dolhareubang as the second cultural asset through argument on October 26, 1971, the word of Dolhareubang became an official name and thereby it became a common name.
Today, the word, 'Dolhareubang' is so famous that it is used greatly on the inside and outside of the country as a logo of stores or companies. It also appears as the trademark of televisions and the name of columns in books. Even the word, Dolhareubang, is interpreted as a guardian god in Mongol because of its popularity. Somebody once explained that Dolhareubang was originated from the word 'HaraBaragan' made up of 'Hara' (keep watching, observe) plus 'Baragan' (objects) in Mongolia. This is an inappropriate rendering. There is no room for doubt that Dolhareubang is 'Stone grandfather' in Jeju dialect. What is the original name of Dolhareubang I confirmed this when I released 'Stone Statues and Stone Tools of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province' (published under the Cultural Property Preservation Bureau) in 1968, 'Bucksoomori' 'Woosungmok' or 'Woosungmok' were dominant names.
There is a lot of mysteries about Dolhareubang besides the names. Primarily, how many Dolhareubangs were there on Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. There are a total of 47 Dolhareubangs including two in Gyeongbok Palace and 45 on Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Is that all Is there any chance that more Dolhareubangs have existed If so, where did the rest of them disappear to When the administrative districts of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province were divided into three areas: Jeju County, Daejeonghyeon (county), and Jeonguihyeon (county), Dolhareubangs were in front of each fortress gate. However, where were the precise original locations Dolhareubangs of Jejumok, Daejeonghyeon and Jeonguihyeon are divided into three types in terms of their figures. The impression and the size are different from among them, too. What is the reason for this Who carved these figures, with what intention and when What is the important function of Dolhareubangs in the same village Are there any relations to the function of 'Jangseung' guardian totem poles found on the mainland of Korea What is its historic origin What kind of relation do Dolhareubangs have with stone monuments at home and abroad Although 5 in Jejumok and 7 in Jeonguihyeon have supporting stone below Dolhareubangs, Dolhareubangs in Daejeonghyeon do not. If these in Daejeonghyeon did not have any supporting stone originally, what was the reason 5 in Jejumok were carved in the shape of an upside of 'L' and an oval. What function do these shapes have Fake Dolhareubangs exist in many figures and are sold as tourist souvenirs, which result in many problems to be solved.
- Problems caused by fake Dolhareubang
47 Dolhareubangs including two in the Korean traditional cultural museum at Gyeongbok Palace were designated as local cultural assets in 1971. Some of them are worthy of traditional cultural materials. Although I have insisted on this continually, it is hard to pick some among those 47 because each one has a unique color and taste. It is difficult to know any superiority among them in terms of their traditional and cultural anthropological character from the viewpoint of aesthetics. In any case, as the symbol of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Dolhareubangs, came to be popular among people. We can see them here and there; at the entrance and the exit of villages, airports, government offices, tangerine orchards and on both sides of bridges. Why do they carve Dolhareubangs and place them everywhere Do they just plunge into the superstition in the wake of awareness of Dolhareubangs'' function as a guardian god which protects the safety and well-being subconsciously Is that the result of being assimilated into the exotic moods of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Are they fascinated by Dolhareubangs which have glaring eyes, stubby noses and slightly unbalanced shoulders Do they highly evaluate the image of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province coming from Dolhareubangs Jang Gongik and Song Jeongwon have lived unique lives as sculptors of Dolhareubangs through life and received an honorable title, the master craftsman. Dolhareubangs made by Jang Gongik were presented to the leaders of the world who visited Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, including former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev, Life-sized fake Dolhareubangs are placed here and there. As Jeju Special Self-Governing Province is famous as a tourist resort across the world, many small-sized Dolhareubangs are made and presented to the world as tourist souvenirs. Dolhareubangs have had an overwhelming position as good local products of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. There is a high demand for more variety of tourist souvenirs, but the popularity of Dolhareubangs has not faded away since the 1960s. However, are life-sized fake Dolhareubangs still good to be sold today Is it the best way that small-sized Dolhareubangs are sold as souvenirs This is challenging for us to solve. At any rate, small-sized Dolhareubangs are produced in abundance today. Is it possible that as time passes (very much), a man in cyberspace turns out to be a real man and good money drives out bad In order to solve these actual problems, why should Dolhareubangs be identified precisely
- 21 Dolhareubangs in Jeju-si, 21 in Daejeong Village, 12 in Jeongui Village, 2 in Gyeongbok Palace
At present, 47 Dolhareubangs remain complete: 21 in the center of Jeju City, or Jejumok, 12 in DaeJeong and Jeongui Counties respectively and two in the Korean traditional cultural museum at Gyeongbok Palace, which were moved from the east gate of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Where were these 47 Dolhareubangs originally They used to be placed in front of the castle gates of Jejumok, Daejeonghyeon and Jeonguihyeon. In the case of Jeju City, Dolhareubangs are in historic sites such as Samseonghyeol Holes (the place where Jeju ancestors came from) and Gwandeokjeong Pavilion. Therefore, it is easy to the get wrong idea about their original locations. It is our duty to discover where they originally belonged the to inform the next generation soth inside and outside of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. In every new village, Dolhareubangs were placed at the entrance and exit of fortress gates two by two. Therefore, Dolhareubangs in Jeju City are not placed in their original places. Dolhareubangs in Jeongui County are placed in their primary spots or near them because Dolhareubangs stand four by four, close to the place where three castle gates used to be and remain almost intact.
Dolhareubangs in DaeJeong County are placed near the original sites at the west and south gates four by four, but in the east place there is only one. The three Dolhareubangs in Boseong Elementary School might belong to the original site. In any case, the most important thing is the principle of preserving culture in the unchangeable existing condition.
- Principle of Maintaining the Present Situation
It is reasonable that thele precious cultural properties should be preserved at the original places where they were first erected. In doing so, their original shapes and role can be handed down to future generations and can be used as material for education. It is not difficult to restore Jeongui County and Daejeong County to their original state. But in the case of Jeju-si, as long as the urban district of Jeju-si is not forced to be revised drastically, is not easy to restore the appearance of Jeju-si to its original state. How desirable it is if either the east gate, the west gate or the south gate was restored to its original state, just as it was in the past. On top of that, how nice would it be if the fortification was put back its the original state In addition, Dolhareubang is not an intangible cultural asset that we cannot see but a tangible folk material which can be seen and touched. Thus restoring Dolhareubangs back to their original places is worthy of serious consideration.
How can the fact be proved that Dolhareubangs were erected at the entrances to the three counties The first evidence is that even until the late 1960s we witnessed Dolhareubang in front of the east gate in Jeju-si, which was its original site.
Secondly, are the places where Dolhareubangs in Daejeong County or Jeongui County are located today at the three castle gates - the east gate, the west gate, and the south gate. Thirds, some people witnessed moving Dolhareubangs from the castle gates to Samseong-san or Gwandeokjeong Pavillion. fourthly, the record from the Tamna Chronicles, published by Damsugyeo, reads "Ongjungseoks" were in front of the east gate, the west gate, and the south gate in Jeju-si.
Outside of the castle gate, the fortification walls stretched in the S- shape, on both sides of the narrow roads where Dolhareubang were set up in pairs.
In the case of the Dolhareubangs that used to stand at the east gate in Jeju-si, about 25m away from where the castle gate was originally built, later each pair of them were moved into a school, the Jeju-si Hall, the Jeju branch of the Korea Broadcasting System and Gyeongbok Palace respectively.
How many Dolhareubangs were there originally on Jeju Special Self-Governing Province The answer is still not known. There used to be 24 Dolhareubangs, that is 8 each at the east gate, the west gate and the south gate in Jeju-si. And 24 Dolhareubangs, 4 each at the east gate, the west gate and the south gate in Daejeong County and Jeongui County, so it can be assumed, that The total number is 48, but one Dolhareubang is believed to be lost.
Hong Sunman asserted in his significant writing, "Objection to the theory of the foreign origin of Dolhareubang", in the Joseon Daily December 20th, 1990, that a total of 48 were erected in the three places but one Dolhareubang was lost.
How many Dolhareubangs were built primarily It is estimated that a total of 48 Dolhareubangs were made, but the clear discovery of just how many Dolhareubangs is our task. As a result, and it is urgently fegulred, to if possible, bringing the Dolhareubangs back onto their original sites maintain then there.
- Beoksumeori, a name worthy of attention
Dolhareubang was called ''Beoksumeori'' in Jeongui County. The name of ''Beoksumeori'' is truly significant. In 1968, when the "Stone statue Stone equipment of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province" was published, it was no small amazement to find the fact from many people including Song Jijun (died in 1991) from Jeongui Village that when they were children, these statues were called Dolhareubang ''Beoksumeori''. Why It is because an important clue in understanding the origin of Dolhareubang was in the name of ''Beoksumeori itself. In other words, as totem poles spread everywhere in the country and are commonly known as ''Beoksu'', ''Beopsu'' or ''Beoksi''. Thus calling Dolhareubang ''Beoksumeori'' is a valuable clue which points to the possibility that Dolhareubang has the same origin as the Boksu totem pole.
''Beoksumeori'' is a compound word to add the word ''Mori'' to the one word ''Beoksu''. Wherever the Dolhareubang stands, the appearance of its head is very impressive. The appearance of the Dolhareubang''s face including the big bulging eyes, the fat noses, the firmly closed lips, the swelled cheeks and so on, give a strong impression. While some Dolhareubangs show a kind of dauntless dignity, others are polite and generous as if they protect everything. Each Dolhareubang has its own look, so that each Dolhareubang displays a strong individual character.
Moreover, every Dolhareubang wears a horsehair cap. The appearance of the head with the hair put together in one like this is striking and impressive. Wasn''t the word ''Beoksumeori'' made on the assumption that the word ''meori'' might have been added to the word ''Beoksu'' imported from China where the word ''Beoksu'' was commonly used
In short, the name of ''Beoksumeori'' proves the fact that Dolhareubang on Jeju Special Self-Governing Province is related to a totem pole (Beoksu) in China according to their origin. Consequently, this (present) writer would like to claim that Dolhareubang on Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and a totem pole (Beoksu) in China were of the same origin.
Firstly, the name ''Beoksu'' has almost the same meaning as the name ''Beoksumori''.
Secondly, ''Beoksu'' and ''Beoksumeori'' are similar in appearance. The appearance of a stone totem pole from China has already been well introduced through many books. Moreover, looking at the pictures of a stone totem pole to the smallest detail makes it apparent that it resembles Dolhareubang in the most parts. The similarity in the appearance of the face and the head can be easily found.
As far as a totem pole is concerned, we can easily regard it simply as a wooden totem pole. But it must always be borne in mine that stone totem poles as well as wooden totem poles are dispersed here and there. When it comes to totem poles, only wooden ones are commonly introduced, so we are usually struck with only the pictures of the wooden poles when dealing with such items. The picture now forming suggests something of a preconception. How dreadful is a preconception
An opinion or a thought which we conclude before an actual investigation on the basis of reason or proper knowledge, is a cause for concern as in Keumganggyeong (a Buddhist script). A totem pole is not only made out of wood but can also is sculptured with stone. A stone totem pole together with a wooden one must also be considered. It is very dangerous to hastily consider only one thing without careful thought of the other. To judge the whole thing from a partial viewpoint is a fallacy which stems from a narrow way of thinking when facing that which is new and not considering other possibilities. That kind of wrong judgment not only leads to half truths but it can also put the circumstances out of order.
- Dolhareubang similar to a totem pole in nave, shape and role
The function of Dolhareubang is summarized into three parts. The first part is that of a guardian, the second as a location marker and the third as a religions incantation. These roles are similar to those of a totem pole.
If Dolhareubang and a totem pole are very much alike in name, shape, and role, can we assume that one day a totem pole was introduced into Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and through a change was adapted to Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and installed in front of the castle gates
The names replacing Dolhareubang, which has taken its root in Jeju society, include ''Useongmok'' and ''Museongmok'' along with ''Beoksumeori''. The name ''Beoksumeori'' is identified in Jeongui County and ''Useongmok'' appears only in Jeju County. ''Museongmok'' has been taken up in Daejeong County and Jeongui County. This is an inferred induced conclusion through information from a myriad of people who investigated in 1969 for six months.
What was Dolhareubang called back in the Joseon Dynasty In Tamna Chronicles, a print version which was published by Damsugyeo, Dolhareubang was known as "Ongjungseok". However the name "Ongjungseok" was rooted in Jeju society until 1960s. Although a lot of old men were asked over and over again, they said unanimously no one has ever called it "Ongjungseok".
How can it be interpreted that the name ''Ongjungseok'' has not been spoken among village folk since at least the dawn of the 20th century, although it was featured in the books Does it mean that only some intelligent people used the word ''Ongjungseok'' in a plausible way Didn''t it end to be rooted in the society less than other names
''Ongjung'' was the name of a person called Duke Wanongjung who defeated invaders from the northern area such as the Huns during in the reign of King Jin. He was a tall, brave and strong man. The following legend has been handed down. After he died, his statue was set up outside the gate of A-fang Palace so that the Huns, uncivilized barbarians, would be terrified at the sight of the statue. The figure naturally became deified, so that it was erected in front of government offices as a guardian. That guardian is said to have been called ''Ongjungseok''.
Since Dolhareubang have had the role of a guardian, standing with the big and bright eyes and with the hands folded to protect villagers in the town and prevent the invasion of warring forces, or malignant diseases, didn''t some wise men also give Dolhareubang the name of Ongjungseok'' Therefore, wasn''t ''Ongjungseok'' generalized to take root in Jeju society while people called it another name In short, the name ''Dolhareubang'' was just a recent nickname. Consequently the names which people often used for Dolhareubang are summarized into ''Beoksumeori'', ''Museongmok'' and ''Useongmok''.
What other names were used except the three mentioned above A few names in the following explanation can be found from the careful research, which has been conducted
Dolyeonggam is a name which is identified in Daejeong County and similar to Dolhareubang.
Sumunjang (a chief of gatekeepers), a name which is likely to be manipulated by highlighting its function although it is confirmed by villagers including Kang Seokyun, Song Jijun, and Lee Jeonghui in Jeongui County, as well as in Jeju-si and Daejeong County.
Janggunseok (stone general) is a name which was revealed by several villagers including Kang Munho in Daejeong County, who gave the information but which was just borrowed from another name of the stone statue of a warrior standing in front of a tomb. Besides, the name has no universal validity.
Dongjaseok (child stone) is a name just drawn from the idea that Dolhareubang is similar to a child stone statue in front of a tomb in appearance, according to the information from Kim Jaesun, Yongdam-dong, Jeju-si.
Mangjusok (a pair of stone posts in front of a tomb) is a name drawn from a pair of stone posts in front of a tomb, according to several scholars of Chinese classics from Jeju-si. Therefore, the names of "Dolyeonggam", "Sumunjang", "Dongjaseok", "Mangjuseok" and so on don''t point only at Dolhareubang and the donit have any universal validity enough to affect all the villagers. Thus the names cannot be an object of debate.
Today, the name "Dolhareubang" has come to have universal validity spreading all over the world since it was adopted as a name of this cultural asset in 1971. ''Dolhareubang'' is easy to remember and has a good linguistic sense.
What do ''Museongmok'' and ''Useongmok'' mean It is too early to conclude their meanings although a few scholars explain what they mean in several ways. They are likely to come from Chinese characters. However, the Chinese characters used for the names will decide whether the transcriptions will become ''Museongmok'' or ''Useongmok''.
- Roles as a guardian, as an incatation and a religion, and as a landmark
Why were Dolhareubang erected in pairs before gates of Jeju County and Daejeong Sub-county and Jeongui Sub-county
A lot of villagers were asked what roles Dolhareubang had, although the opinions of them were not right in every aspect during the six months of 1967 in three counties. When the common measure was induced by asking people over and over again, the clue to the Dolhareubang''s functions was thought to be found. We search for three key pieces of evidence as our method to examine the bygone days. These are the records from literature, remains of the past and the folklore tales.
The apparent records from literature about Dolhareubang are hard to find. The records of a few lines are all about Dolhareubang. Therefore, the weight of folklore cannot be said to be very great.
Why was Dolhareubang erected in front of the gates of the castles in the three countries The main part of what the villagers thought as of 1968 as a standard will be explained in the followings.
The ten opinions are summarized into the role as a guardian, the role as an incantation and a religion, and the role as a location marker.
- It played a role in keeping a gate.
- It played a role in guarding and protecting.
- It played a role similar to that of a child stone statue in front of a tomb.
- It had a character of a guardian deity.
- It was set up for the motive similar to the reason for establishing a tower which defends misfortune.
- It was set up so as to prevent evil which invaded into the villages.
- It was set up so as to prevent malignant diseases which entered the villages.
- It was set up so as to defend agalnst.
- It was set up so as to inform the locations of government buildings in provinces and counties.
- It was set up so as to display dignity in the locations of government buildings in provinces and counties.
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